The meaning of Wudhu in the Arabic language is brightness and cleanliness. Wudhu is one of the necessary conditions of Salah (prayer). There are four fardh (compulsory acts) of Wudhu:
1. To wash the whole face once from the forehead up till the chin and from one ear up till the other ear. If the hair of the beard of a person's face, or the hair of the moustache, or the hair of the eyebrows are so dense that the skin beneath is hidden by the hair then it is not necessary to wash the skin, but it is necessary to wash the hair on these three parts of the skin.
2. To wash both hands once, from the fingers up till the elbows.
3. To make masah of the quarter of the head. Meaning of masah is to pass a wet hand over the head.
4. To wash both feet once from toes to the ankles.
Meaning of fardh is if any of these parts are not washed and stays dry, the Wudhu is not complete and therefore not valid for Salah. Consequently the Salah will not be valid.
The meaning of washing in Wudhu and in Ghusl (bath) is that the water should drip from the washed parts of the body.
Sunnah Method of Wudhu - Partial Ablution:
1. The person making wudhu should sit at such a place that the splashes made from the wudhu water should not touch him or his clothes.
2. It is desirable to sit facing the qiblah (direction of the Ka'bah in Makkah).
3. He should recite the dua;
اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي ذَنْبِي وَوَسِّعْ لِي فِي دَارِي وَبَارِكْ لِي فِي رِزْقِي
"O Allah, forgive my sins and widen my grave and grant barakat in my Rizq (sustenance)" (Hisnul Hasin)
4. Make intention of wudhu. i.e. I am making wudhu to purify myself and to please Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) and to perform Salah.
5. Wash both hands up till the wrist three times.
6. Gargle the mouth three times.
7. Clean the teeth and mouth with a miswaak (teeth cleaning twig).
8. Pass water through the nostrils up till the soft part of the nose three times with the right hand, and clean the nose with the left hand.
9. Wash the whole face three times from the upper part of the forehead till the chin and from one ear till the other ear.
10. Wash the right hand from the fingertips up till the elbow three times.
11. Wash the right hand from the fingertips up till the elbow three times.
12. Make khilaal of the fingers of each hand by entering the fingers of the other hand.
13. Make khilaal of the beard with the fingers of the right hand.
14. Make masah of the whole head once.
15. Make masah of the inner parts of both ears by passing the wet index finger of both hands in the same side of each ear. Pass the wet thumbs around the outside of both ears.
16. Make masah of the nape with the back of both hands.
Note: One should make masah of the ears and nape with the wet hands used for making masah of the head and one should not take another water for masah of these two parts.
17. Wash the right foot up till the ankle 3 times and wash the left foot up till the ankle 3 times.
18. Make khilaal between the toes of both feet with the small finger of the left hand starting the khilaal from the small toe of the right foot, moving towards the big toe of the right foot, then starting the khilaal from the big toe of the left foot, moving towards the small toe of the left foot.
This is the Sunnah method of making wudhu.
After completion of the wudhu it is desirable that one should recite Surah Qadr.
Things Which Break Wudhu
1. Excretion (Passing of stool)
2. Passing of Urine.
3. Passing gas from backside.
4. Bleeding from any part of the body in such a manner that the blood flows away from the original place of bleeding.
5. To vomit mouthful. The sign of mouthful vomit is that a person cannot stop the vomit or it is difficult to stop it.
6. To sleep with a support of anything in such a way that if the support is removed then the sleeping person will fall down.
7. To become unconscious.
8. To loose sense by becoming insane.
9. To laugh loudly during the Salah. The sign of a loud laughter is that the people around him can hear the laughter.
Ghusl - Bath
Meaning of Ghusl is Arabic language is to pass water over the whole body.
There are three fardh (obligatory acts) in Ghusl (Bath)
1. To gargle the mouth in such a way that the water reaches and wets the whole mouth.
2. To pass the water into the nostrils up till the soft part of the nose.
3. To pass water over the whole body.
If a person is taking a compulsory Ghusl and if any part out of these three parts remains dry i.e. the water does not reach it then the Ghusl will not be valid and the person will not be counted to be pure.
To complete the Ghusl he must wash the dry parts, he does not need to bathe all over again.
If the woman's hair is platted and the water reaches the roots of the hair and the hair on the head is also washed and the platted hair is not washed then that is sufficient for woman to become pure, i.e. it is not necessary for her to open the platted hair and wash it.
Sunnah Method of Ghusl (Bath)
The Sunnah method of Ghusl is:
1. The person taking bath should wash his hands three times up till his wrists.
2. Wash the private parts.
3. If there is any impurity on the body it should be washed.
4. To make wudhu as it is made for Salah.
5. Wash and pass water over the head three times.
6. Wash and pass water over the right side of the body three times.
7. Wash and pass water over the left side of the body three times.
1. One should not face the Qiblah (direction of the Ka'aba in Mecca) whilst taking a bath.
2. One should not waste water by using it more than the prescribed method. However, if one needs to clean the hair and the body with soap and shampoo and for this purpose he has to use extra water then that is permissible.
3. One should bathe in such a place where no one can see him.
It is necessary for males (Boys and Men) to cover their body from the navel till the knees in presence of other people, it is not permissible to see this part of the body of another male also.
It is necessary for females (Girls and Women) to cover their body from head till toe from strange people and since this covering of the body is not observed in the public baths, it is not permissible for males and females to go to such places for neither swimming nor bathing.
4. One should not talk while bathing except in necessity.
5. Dry the body with a towel.
6. After bathing cover the body as quickly as possible.
Matters Which Make Ghusl (Bath) Compulsory
1. Ghusl becomes compulsory when sperm comes out with enjoyment and passion, whether in a wet dream or in a state of awakens (masturbation).
2. After intercourse.
3. After the completion of monthly period (menstrual cycle of women).
4. After the completion of nifaas (child birth) for women.
If one wakes up and sees sperm on his body or clothes or the bed sheet but he does not remember a wet dream, even then Ghusl becomes compulsory on that person.
A Person Who Needs To Take A Bath
1. Touch or carry the Holy Qur'an.
2. Recite the Holy Qur'an.
3. Touch the translation of the Holy Qur'an which also contains the text of the Qur'an.
4. Touch that part of the paper on which the Qur'an ayat (verse) is written.
5. Enter in the Masjid (mosque).
6. Perform Salah.
He CAN DO:
1. Can make any types of Dhikr (is the name of devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited silently within the heart or aloud). E.g Durood, Kalimas
2. Can make dua (supplication) and can make the dua's mentioned in the Qur'an with the intention of the dua and not with the intention of reciting the Holy Qur'an.
3. Can eat and drink after washing hands and mouth.
4. Can start fast before taking a bath.
Ocassions of Sunnah Ghusl (Bath)
1. On Friday before Jum'ah Salah (Friday Prayer).
2. On both Eid days before the Eid Salah's.
3. Before putting on Ihram of Hajj and Umrah.
4. For the Hajj pilgrims on the day of Arafat (9th Dhu l-Hijjah). After beginning of Zuhr (noon prayer) time.
MEZI - Mezi is a colourless liquid (semen) which comes out in a state of passion but the person does not feel it coming out, due to this coming out of mezi, Ghusl does not become compulsory but it breaks the wudhu.
Hence the person should wash and purify the private parts and the cloth which is stained and should make wudhu.
WEDI - Wedi is a sticky substance which usually comes out before urination or after urination. This discharge is due to physical illness, and the person does not feel any enjoyment due to this discharge.
It does not make Ghusl compulsory but wudhu becomes compulsory, so one should wash and purify the private parts and the clothes if they are stained, then make Wudhu.
The Method of Purifying Impurities
It is necessary to clean and purify any stained clothes from impurities. Some of the impurities are:
1. Urine 2. Sperm (Meni) 3. Mezi (semen) 4. Wedi 5. Blood
6. Pus 7. Excretion 8. Vomit 9. Toxicants (liquors)
If visible impurities e.g. vomit, excretion etc stains any cloth or body then it should be washed so much that the stain and smell disappears. If it is removed in the first wash or the second wash then it is still better to wash the item third time.
Water is sufficient to remove the impurity. It is not necessary to use any other substance such as soap to remove it.
If the impurity is invisible then it should be removed by washing it three times and every time the cloth should be squeezed so much that no more water drips from it.
If the impurity is in such a matter which cannot be squeezed e.g. plate, chair, shoes, carpet etc then the method of removing the impurity is to wash the impure area and leave it to drip until no more water drips.
Then it should be washed again until no more water drips, then it should be again washed a third time and left until the water stops dripping. The item will thereafter become pure.
The saliva of a dog is impure, so if a dog licks a person or his clothes or body, the impurity should be washed with the method mentioned above.
Note: the dog's body is not impure, so if a dog touches anyone's clothes or body then the clothes or body will not become impure. Irrespective as to whether the dog's body is wet by water or dry.
But the dog's sweat is impure. so if someone's body or clothing is stained by a dog's sweat then it is necessary to purify it by washing it.
The Method of Istinga
1. Before entering the toilet it is a Sunnah to recite the du'a:
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ
"In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful".
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبْثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ
"O Allah. I seek refuge in You from the male female evil and Jinns".
(Mishkat, Hisnul Hasin)
2. Enter with the left foot into the toilet first then the right foot.
3. Relieve oneself in such a place that no one can see him
4. Relieve oneself sitting down whilst urinating or excretion.
5. After relieving oneself wipe the private parts with tissue paper and then clean and wash the private parts with water.
6. One should use the left hand, not the right hand for touching and washing the private parts.
7. One should not take off all the clothes whilst relieving oneself.
8. One should only open the required part of the clothing for relieving oneself.
9. One should not enter the toilet wearing a ring or any other article which contains the name of Allah (subhana wa ta'ala) on it or any verse of the Qur'an or any part of Holy Scripture in such a manner that it can be seen.
However if the scripture is covered in such a way that the text cannot be seen then it is permissible but not desirable.
10. One should not make Dhikr or recite the Qur'an whilst in the toilet.
11. One should not talk whilst in the toilet except in necessity.
12. One should not face the Qiblah nor turn the back towards the Qiblah whilst relieving oneself.
13. When coming out of the toilet one should step out with the right foot first followed by the left foot.
14. Wash both hands after istinga has been completed.
15. Recite the du'a after coming out of the toilet i.e.
"(O Allah) I seek forgiveness and pardon from You".
"(O Allah) I seek forgiveness and pardon from You".
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنِّي الْأَذَى وَعَافَانِي
"All Praise be to Allah, who removed the difficulty from me and gave me ease (relief)". (Mishkat)
Tayammum - Dry Ablution Using Sand or Dust
If a person is in such a place that he does not have any water with him and he is sure that there is no water around him within a radius of one mile, then it is permissible for him to make tatammum in place of wudhu.
If a person is so ill that he fears if he will make wudhu or take a bath with water then it will harm him and increase the illness, then it is permissible for him to make tayammum.
Tayammum is persmissible by any earthly item e.g. soil, stone, clay etc.
Anything which does not burn in fire nor melt in fire then that is an earthly item; it is permissible to make tayammum with it.
The method of making tayammum is:
1. Rub both hands on anything which is of earthly nature; if any dust comes on the hands then blow it away. Then pass both hands over the whole face, from beginning of the forehead till the chin and from one side of the ear to the other side of the ear.
2. Again rub both hands on the earthly substance, and then pass the left palm over the right hand starting from the fingers moving towards the elbow on the outer side of the hand. Then pass the same palm from the elbow of the right hand up till the fingers of the inner side of the right hand.
3. Thereafter pass the right palm over the left hand starting from the fingers moving towards the elbow on the outer side of the left hand. Then pass the same palm from the elbow of the left hand till the fingers of the inner side of the left hand.
Fardh (Obligitory Acts) of Tayammum
1. To make intention of becoming pure.
2. To pass both hands over the whole face as mentioned above.
3. To make tayammum of both hands as mentioned above.
Matters Which Break Tayammum
1. All those things which break wudhu will break tayammum also.
2. If the person finds water or comes within one mile radius of water which he can use then the tayammum will break.
3. If tayammum was made due to an illness and he recovers from that illness then the tayammum will break.
All those acts which are permissible with wudhu are also permissible with tayammum when the tayammum is made according to the above mentioned conditions.